Gdansk University of TechnologyFaculty of ChemistryDepartment of Inorganic Chemistry Copyright © 2017 by KChN WCh PG – Andrzej Okuniewski | |

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Inorganic chemistry
Semester I (1°)

Person responsible for the subject: Agnieszka Pladzyk, PhD DSc Eng..

Lecture

No info available.

Tutorials

Programme

  • Basic concepts and chemical laws (atomic and molecular masses, mole, Avogadro number, molar mass, isotopes)
  • Ideal gas laws
  • Stoichiometry – calculations based on chemical formulas

First test (5th week)

  • Balancing chemical equations
  • Stoichiometry – calculations based on chemical equations

Secont test (10th week)

  • Stoichiometry of chemical reactions
  • Solutions: molar concentration, mass percentage, ppm, ppb, ppt, converting concentrations

Third test (15th week)

Passing criteria

Apart from extensive learning and practising, students have to write three tests during the semester. Each test is worth 15 points maximum. That makes total 45 points for all three tests. In order to pass the tutorials one has to obtain 60% i.e. 27 points. The scale of grade is presented below:

Points Grade
42 — 45 5,0
37 — 41 4,5
32 — 36 4,0
27 — 31 3,5
< 27 2,0

If student fails the semester, she or he takes the test covering all material in second (repeat) examination period and obtain 50% of total points.

Literature

  • J. Chojnacki, A. Dołęga, B. Dręczewski: Selected Topics in General and Inorganic Chemistry, PG Press.

Green Technologies and Monitoring

Inorganic chemistry
Semester II (1°)

Person responsible for the subject: Agnieszka Pladzyk, PhD DSc Eng..

Lecture

Programme

  • The group 18 elements of periodic table - noble gases. Compounds of noble gases.
  • The group 17 elements – halogens: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. General characterization of elements. The role of chlorine and ClO2 in water treatment.
  • The group 16 elements – chalcogens: sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium. The process for producing sulfuric acid.
  • The group 15 elements – pnictogens: nitrogen, phosphorous, arsenic, antimony, bismuth. The process for producing ammonia and nitrogen fertilizers.
  • The group 14 elements – carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead. Semimetals and semiconductors. Silicate and organosilicate compounds.
  • The group 13 – boron, aluminum, gallium, indium and thallium. The trace metals of life.
  • The physicochemical characterization of metals and their alloys. Intermetallic compounds. standard potentials. Galvanic cells. Electrolysis, corrosion, heavy metals in environment.
  • The groups 1 and 2 elements – metals of s-block elements. The alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals. Soda, sodium hydroxide, lime, cement, glass.
  • Metals of p-block elements.
  • The group 13 elements as a collection of p-, d- and f-block elements.
  • Metals of d-block elements. General characterization.
  • Complex compounds of metals. The types of structure, stability, isomerism.
  • The groups 11 and 12 elements.
  • The groups 4 and 5 elements.
  • The groups 6 and 7 elements.
  • The general characterization of the groups 8, 9 and 10 elements. Iron and steel production.
  • The group 3 elements and the f-block metals: lanthanoids and actinoids.

Passing criteria

Students who pass both tutorials and laboratory take the exam during the session. In order to pass the exam one has to obtain 60% of total points.

Literature

  • C. E. Housecroft, A. G. Sharpe, Inorganic Chemistry, Third Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall 2008
  • J. D. Lee, A New Concise Inorganic Chemistry, 1994.
  • P. Atkins & J. de Paula, Physical Chemistry, Eighth Edition, Oxford University Press 2006.
  • B. Douglas, D. H. McDaniel, J. J. Alexander, Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Second Edition, John Wiley&Sons, Inc. 1983.

Tutorials

Programme

Acid-base equilibrium in aqueous solutions (6 hours):

  • Self-ionization of water, strong and weak acids and bases
  • pH calculations
  • The common-ion effect
  • Buffer solutions
  • Hydrolysis

First test (7th week)

Chemical equilibrium in complex compound solutions, the solubility (6 hours):

  • Stability constant of metal complex
  • The solubility products (Ksp) and ion products (Qsp)
  • Fractional precipitation
  • Influence of common ion, pH and complex ions on solubility of precipitates

Secont test (14th week)

Correction test (15th week)

Passing criteria

Apart from extensive learning and practising, students have to write two tests during the semester. Each test is worth 15 points. That makes total of 30 points for all two tests. In order to pass the tutorials one has to obtain 60% i.e. 18 points. The scale of grade is presented below:

Points Grade
28,0 — 30,0 5,0
25,0 — 27,5 4,5
22,0 — 24,5 4,0
18,0 — 21,5 3,5
< 18,0 2,0

The last tutorial is intended for Student who did not receive 18 points total from two test. At that time she or he has the possibility of rewriting a test of which they received less points on the first time. Such Students will receive a half grade lower than the grade given in the table above. If student fails the semester tests, she or he takes the test covering all material in second (repeat) examination period.

Literature

  • J. Chojnacki, A. Dołęga, B. Dręczewski: Selected Topics in General and Inorganic Chemistry, PG Press.
  • On-line materials concerning chemical equilibrium in solutions.

Laboratory

Laboratory program consists of 10 exercises from the area of qualitative analysis of selected cations and anions. These exercises are carried out individually by every student with the use of general chemical methods. Due to this program Students have the opportunity to know the physical and chemical properties of typical inorganic compounds. After this course every Student is familiar with standard methods used in the separation and identification of particular ions and compounds, and also the basis of experimental inorganic chemistry.

Programme

  • Analysis of Group I cations: Ag+, Hg22+, Pb2+
  • Analysis of Group IIA cations: Pb2+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Bi3+
  • Analysis of Group III cations: Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+
  • Analysis of Groups IV and V cations: Ca2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+
  • Analysis of Group I anions: Cl, Br, I, [Fe(CN)6]4−, [Fe(CN)6]3−
  • Analysis of Groups II and V anions: NO2, CH3COO, NO3, MnO4
  • Analysis of Group III anions: SO32−, CO32−, C2O42−, BO33−, C4H4O62−
  • Analysis of Group IV and VI anions: PO43−, S2O32−, CrO42−, SO42−
  • Analysis of three inorganic salts (one of them poorly soluble) - cations and anions belong to the groups mentioned above
  • Analysis of three inorganic substances: metals, nonmetals, metal oxides, hydroxides, inorganic acids

Description of exercises

  • Each exercise is composed of two parts – theoretical (short test) and practical one (the analysis of given samples). The test can be written only once. Particular samples intended for analysis will be given only once right after writing a test.
    • Practical part of exercises 1-4 concerns the qualitative analysis of cations mixture – all cations must be identified in a sample developed for analysis. The precondition for this analysis is correct detection of three test tube which contain single cation each.
    • Practical part of exercises 5-8 concerns the qualitative analysis of anions mixture – all anions must be identified in a sample developed for analysis. First, Student must detect correctly three test tube which contain single anion each. After this, a sample of mixture will be dispensed.
    • Exercise 9 concerns the analysis of inorganic salt – student have to analyze 3 inorganic salts and must detect both cation and anion as two components of each salt.
    • Exercise 10 pertains to the analysis of three inorganic substances (metals, nonmetals, metal oxides, hydroxides, inorganic acids).
  • The student will be required to summarize the information observed and collected in report form as a conclusion of each experiment. Therefore a notebook is required. The information such as the object of experiment, equations of reactions, observations and conclusions must be included in the report.
  • Each exercise can be performed only once and the final score will be calculated on the basis of the written report.
  • To attain next exercise Student must return the written report from the previous exercise together with corrected test written in the notebook.
  • The general lab safety rules must be followed. Safety goggles must be worn at all times when Student is present in the laboratory. If Student disregard safety rules and practices, the instructor is obligated to remove such person from the laboratory since she or he will be a danger to itself and others.

Scoring

Points that can be obtained from each exercise are presented in the table below:

Exercise No. Analysis points Test points Total points for exercise
1 30 15 45
2 50 25 75
3 70 35 105
4 70 30 105
5 50 25 75
6 40 20 60
7 50 25 75
8 40 20 60
9 60 30 90
10 60 30 90
Σ 520 260 780

The number of points for exercises 1-9 can be calculated from the formula given below:

P = (M / v) × (AB)

where:
P – number of points obtained for the experimental part of particular exercise
M – maximum number of points that can be obtained for the particular exercise
v – real number of ions in mixture developed for analysis
A – number of ions identified correctly
B – number of ions which were not given in the sample for identification but were listed as present in the final report of the exercise by Student

In Exercise 9 correct identification of each ion results in 10 points for each ion, and the mistake causes the loss of 10 points (−10 points). The lack of the answer is also treated as a mistake in identifications both cation and anion and resulted in −20 points.

In Exercise 10 Student gains 20 points for the correct identification of each sample; the mistake causes the loss of 20 points (−20 points). The lack of the answer is treated as a mistake and also causes the loss of 20 points (−20 points).

Passing criteria

  • Student gets a passing grade when she or he has completed all exercises (all tests are written and all reports are checked) and obtained the minimum amount of points given below:
    • minimum 104 points from all tests
    • minimum 350 points in total
    • ATTENTION! If Student do not receive 104 points from tests but gets 350 points in total she or he takes the test covering all material in second (repeat) examination period and obtain 50% of total points.
    • ATTENTION! If Student gets 0 points from at least one test she or he must also take the test covering all material (information above).
  • Students who obtain more than 232 points from tests will receive a half grade higher than the grade given in the table below.
  • The scale of grades is presented below:
Number of points Grade
710 — 780 5,0
631 — 709 4,5
553 — 630 4,0
475 — 552 3,5
350 — 474 3,0
< 350 2,0

Literature

  • On-line script
  • J. Prejzner: Chemia nieorganiczna. Laboratorium, Wydawnictwo PG, 2004
  • J. Chojnacki, A. Dołęga, B. Dręczewski: Selected Topics in General and Inorganic Chemistry, PG Press.
  • On-line materials concerning inorganic qualitative analysis in the laboratory.